Allspice
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon plus 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves

Apple Pie Spice
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg plus 1/8 teaspoon cardamom

Baking Powder, Double-Acting
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar

Butter
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute:
- 1 cup regular margarine
- 1 cup vegetable shortening (for baking)
- An equal amount of oil can be substituted for a similar portion of MELTED butter if the recipe specifies using MELTED butter.

Buttermilk
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough regular milk to make 1 cup (allow to stand 5 minutes)

Chocolate, Unsweetened
Amount: 1 ounce
Substitute: 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or regular margarine or vegetable oil

Cornstarch (for thickening)
Amount: 1 tablespoon
Substitute: 2 tablespoons flour

Egg
Amount: 1 whole egg
Substitute:
- 1/4 cup egg substitute (Like Egg Beaters, Second Nature, Scramblers)
- Reconstituted powdered eggs; follow package directions
- 2 tablespoons mayonnaise (suitable for use in cake batter)

Flour, All-Purpose White Flour
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1/2 cup whole wheat flour plus 1/2 cup all-purpose flour

Flour, Cake
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

Flour, Self-Rising
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 cup minus 2 teaspoons all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt

Lemon Zest (fresh grated lemon peel)
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1/2 teaspoon lemon extract

Mayonnaise (for use in salads and salad dressings)
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute:
- 1 cup sour cream
- 1 cup yogurt
- 1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a blender
Mustard, Dry (in cooked mixtures)
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1 tablespoon prepared mustard

Pumpkin Pie Spice
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon plus 1/4 ground teaspoon ginger plus 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice plus 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg

Sugar, Confectioners' or Powdered
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1 tablespoon cornstarch; process in a food processor using the metal blade attachment until it's well blended and powdery.

Tomato Juice
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water

Tomato Soup
Amount: 10 3/4 ounce can
Substitute: 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water